New evidence on lifetime earnings from vocational training and higher education compared: the role of gender and career interruptions.
Education pays off! A recent study by the IAW on behalf of the Stuttgart Chamber of Industry and Commerce confirms that higher education leads to higher lifetime income and protects against unemployment. In particular, people without education are left behind at an early stage. A comparison between vocational training and higher education shows that higher education often pays off late in life (after the age of 40). On average, people who move up the educational ladder, i.e., those who continue their studies after vocational training or go on to obtain a master's degree or technician's certificate, earn similar amounts to those who study immediately after leaving school. Due to the longer educational phases, academics have to earn their lifetime income in a shorter period of time. Therefore, interruptions in employment are to be viewed particularly negatively and this can also influence the desire to have children.
Rising energy prices and high inflation rates are currently worsening the longer-term economic outlook. According to the latest nowcast from the IAW and the University of Hohenheim, Baden-Württemberg's gross domestic product (GDP) in the third quarter of 2022 remained at roughly the same level as in the second quarter. Slightly positive growth is forecast for the subsequent quarters. For the time being, Baden-Württemberg is not predicted to enter a recession - a decline in GDP over two quarters. However, this outcome is on a knife-edge in view of great uncertainty about geopolitical and global economic developments.
The Tübingen-Hohenheim-Economics (THE) Association cordially invites you to this year’s THE (Christmas) Workshop combining a Young Researcher Workshop and a Mini Course. We plan to hold the event on campus, subject to the University’s Corona regulation.
The 7th Bundesbank-IAW Lecture on European Economic Integration was held on 11 July 2022 by Professor Thierry Mayer from the Institut d'études politiques de Paris (SciencesPo). Under the heading "The United States of Europe", Professor Mayer asked to what extent the EU is already a space without borders. In fact, the analysis based on so-called gravity models shows that trade barriers within the EU hardly exist any more. Whether a supplier is based in Lorraine, Luxembourg or Rhineland-Palatinate, for example, is no longer relevant. At the same time, integration has increased considerably in the last 15 years. However, the welfare gains from domestic trade are unevenly distributed. Above all, the Central and Eastern European countries have gained. For example, consumer welfare in Hungary is 15% higher every year than it would be without the EU.
Many countries suffer from skilled labor shortages in nursing. One way to increase the nurse labor supply is to raise their retention rates. Yet, though several studies exist on factors associated with the nurse labor supply at different levels, literature on factors associated with nurses’ decisions to leave their occupation is relatively scarce. Based on German administrative data, I analyze the determinants of nurses’ decisions to leave their profession. My results suggest that younger nurses, nurses in the social sector, and nurses working with smaller employers leave their occupation more often than their counterparts, irrespective of their specific nursing occupations and care settings (inpatient or outpatient care).